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| Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

World consumption and production (the driving forces of the world economy) depend on the use of the environment and natural resources in a way that continues to have destructive effects on the planet.

The economic and social progress achieved over the last century has been accompanied by environmental degradation that is putting at risk the very systems on which our future development (and even our survival) depends.

Here are some facts and figures:

  • Each year, about a third of all food produced (the equivalent of 1.3 billion tons with a value close to a trillion dollars) ends up rotting in consumer and retail garbage cans, or spoiling due to transport and inadequate collection practices.

  • If everyone exchanged their light bulbs for low-energy bulbs, it would save $120 billion a year.

  • If the world's population reaches 9.6 billion people by 2050, the equivalent of nearly three planets could be needed to provide the natural resources needed to sustain today's lifestyle.

The COVID-19 pandemic offers countries the opportunity to develop recovery plans that reverse current trends and shift our consumption and production patterns towards a more sustainable future.

Sustainable consumption and production means doing more and doing better with less. It is also about decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation, increasing resource efficiency and promoting sustainable lifestyles.

Sustainable consumption and production​​ they can also make a substantial contribution to poverty reduction and the transition to green and low-carbon economies.


The current crisis is an opportunity to make a profound and systemic shift towards a more sustainable economy that works for people and the planet.

The emergence of COVID-19 emphasized the relationship between people and nature and revealed the fundamental principles of the dilemma we continually face: human beings have unlimited needs, but the planet has a limited capacity to satisfy them. We have to try to understand and assess the limits to which we can push nature before its impact is negative. These limits must be reflected in our consumption and production patterns.

COVID-19 can serve as a catalyst for social change. We must rebuild better and change our consumption and production patterns to more sustainable patterns.


| Notable Data  


  • If the world population reached 9,600 million in 2050, it would take the equivalent of nearly three planets to provide the natural resources needed to sustain today's lifestyle.

  • With the increased use of non-metallic minerals in infrastructure and construction, there has been a significant improvement in the material standard of living. The "material footprint" per capita of developing countries increased from 5 metric tons in 2000 to 9 in 2017.

  • 93% of the 250 largest companies in the world report sustainability.



  • Less than 3% of the world's water is fresh (drinking), of which 2.5% is frozen in Antarctica, the Arctic and glaciers. Therefore, humanity should only have 0.5% for all ecosystem needs, human and freshwater.

  • Humans are polluting water faster than nature can recycle and purify water from rivers and lakes.

  • More than 1 billion people still do not have access to clean water.

  • Excessive water use contributes to global water scarcity.

  • Water is given to us by nature, but the infrastructure needed to manage it is expensive.


Ene rgia

  • If everyone in the world used energy saving light bulbs, the world would save $120 billion a year.

  • Despite technological advances that have promoted increased energy efficiency, energy use in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries will continue to grow another 35% until 2020. Domestic and commercial energy consumption is the second area of faster growth of energy usage, after shipping.

  • In 2002, the stock of motor vehicles in OECD countries was 550 million (75% of which were private cars). A 32% increase in vehicle ownership is forecast for 2020. At the same time, vehicle kilometers are expected to increase by 40% and global air travel to triple in the same period.

  • Families consume 29% of the world's energy and consequently contribute 21% of the resulting CO2 emissions.

  • The participation of renewable energies​​ in final energy consumption reached 17.5% in 2015.



  • Although the most serious environmental impacts on food occur in the production phase (agriculture and food processing), families influence these impacts through their habits and food choices. Consequently, this affects the environment through food-related energy consumption and waste generation.

  • Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced, equivalent to 1.3 billion tons worth about $1 billion, ends up rotting in consumer and retail containers, or spoiled due to poor practices. in industry, transport and harvesting.

  • 2 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese.

  • Land degradation, declining soil fertility, unsustainable water use, overfishing and degradation of the marine environment are diminishing the capacity of basic natural resources to provide food.

  • The food sector represents around 30% of the world's total energy consumption and 22% of the total greenhouse gas emissions.

| Goal 12

12.1  Apply the 10-year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Modalities, with the participation of all countries and under the leadership of developed countries, taking into account the degree of development and capacities of developing countries

12.2  By 2030, achieve sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.3  By 2030, halve global food waste per capita at retail and at the consumer level and reduce food losses in production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

12.4  By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with internationally agreed frameworks, and significantly reduce their release into air, water and water. Soil in order to minimize its adverse effects on human health and the environment

12.5  By 2030, significantly reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse activities

12.6  Encourage companies, especially large companies and transnational corporations, to adopt sustainable practices​​ and incorporate sustainability information into your reporting cycle.

12.7  Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8  By 2030, ensure that people around the world have information and knowledge relevant to sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

12.a  Help developing countries strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable consumption and production patterns

12.b  Develop and apply instruments to monitor the effects on sustainable development in order to achieve sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

12.c  Rationalize inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage unnecessary consumption, eliminating market distortions, in line with national circumstances, including restructuring tax systems and phasing out harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impact, fully leading to considering the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing possible adverse effects on their development, so as to protect poor and affected communities

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