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| Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its effects

2019 was the second hottest year ever and marked the end of the hottest decade (2010-2019) on record.

Levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached record levels in 2019.

Climate change is affecting every country on every continent. It is disrupting national economies and affecting different lives. Weather systems are changing, sea levels are rising, and weather events are becoming increasingly extreme.

Although greenhouse gas emissions are estimated to be reduced by about 6% in 2020 due to movement restrictions and economic downturns resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, this improvement is only temporary. Climate change will not stop. Once the global economy starts to recover from the pandemic, emissions are expected to return to higher levels.

Urgent action is needed to address the pandemic and climate emergency in order to save lives and livelihoods.

The Paris Agreement, approved in 2015, aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, keeping global temperature rise during this century well below 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels. The agreement also aims to strengthen countries' capacity to deal with the effects of climate change through appropriate financial flows, a new technological framework and an enhanced capacity-building framework.


As countries focus on rebuilding their economies after COVID-19, recovery plans can shape the 21st century economy to be clean, green, healthy, secure and more resilient. The current crisis is an opportunity to make a profound and systemic shift towards a more sustainable economy that works for people and the planet.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations proposed six favorable measures​​ the climate that governments can take when they set about rebuilding their economies and societies:

  1. Green transition: investments must accelerate the decarbonization of all aspects of our economy.

  2. Green jobs and sustainable and inclusive growth.

  3. Green economy: making societies and peoples more resilient through a just transition for all and leaving no one behind.

  4. Invest in sustainable solutions: fossil fuel subsidies must disappear and polluters must pay for their pollution.

  5. Face all weather risks.

  6. Cooperation: No country can succeed alone.

To address the climate emergency, post-pandemic recovery plans must promote long-term systemic changes that shift the trajectory of atmospheric CO2 levels.

Governments around the world have expended considerable time and effort​​ in recent years developing plans to chart a safer and more sustainable future for its citizens. Considering these plans now, as part of the recovery plan, can help the world to better rebuild itself after the current crisis.


| Notable Data  


  • In April 2018, 175 Parties ratified the Paris Agreement and 168 Parties communicated their first nationally determined contributions to the United Nations Framework Convention on the Secretariat for Climate Change.

  • In April 2018, 10 developing countries completed and successfully submitted the first version of their national adaptation plans to respond to climate change.

  • Developed countries continue to make progress towards the goal of jointly mobilizing $100 billion annually by 2020 for mitigation actions.

  • Thanks to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we know the following:

  • Between 1880 and 2012, the global average temperature increased by 0.85 degrees Celsius. This means that for every degree the temperature increases, cereal production is reduced by approximately 5%. There was a significant reduction in the production of corn, wheat and other important crops of 40 megatons per year globally between 1981 and 2002 due to the warmer climate

  • The oceans warmed, the amount of snow and ice decreased, and the sea level rose. Between 1901 and 2010, mean sea level rose 19 cm as the oceans expanded due to warming and melting. The extent of Arctic sea ice has shrunk in the last few decades since 1979, with ice loss of 1.07 million km2 every decade.

  • Given the current concentration and continuing emissions of greenhouse gases, the increase in global temperature by the end of the century is likely to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius compared to the period 1850-1900 in all scenarios but one. The world's oceans will continue to warm and the thaw will continue. An average sea level rise of 24-30 cm by 2065 and 40-63 cm by 2100 is predicted. Most problems related to climate change will persist for many centuries despite reduced emissions

  • Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have increased by nearly 50% since 1990

  • Between 2000 and 2010 there was a greater increase in emissions than in the previous three decades

  • If a wide range of technological measures and behavioral changes are adopted, it is still possible to limit the increase in global average temperature to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

  • Thanks to major institutional and technological changes, there will be a greater opportunity than ever for global warming not to cross this threshold

| Goal 13

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related risks and natural disasters in all countries

13.2 Incorporate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and plans

13.3 Improve education, awareness and human and institutional capacity in relation to climate change mitigation, adaptation, mitigation of its effects and early warning

13.a Fulfill the commitment of developed countries that are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to reach by 2020 the goal of jointly mobilizing US$ 100 billion annually from all sources, in order to meet the needs of countries under development in relation to the adoption of concrete mitigation measures and the transparency of their implementation, and to make the Green Climate Fund fully operational, capitalizing on it as quickly as possible.

13.b Promote mechanisms to enhance capacity for effective climate change planning and management in LDCs and Small Island Developing States, with particular emphasis on women, youth, and local and marginalized communities

* Recognizing that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the main international intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

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