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| Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Inclusive and sustainable industrialization, combined with innovation and infrastructure, can unleash dynamic and competitive economic forces that generate jobs and income. They play a key role in introducing and promoting new technologies, facilitating international trade and enabling the efficient use of resources.

However, there is still a long way to go before the world can make the most of this potential. In particular, least developed countries need to accelerate the development of their manufacturing sectors if they are to reach the 2030 target and increase investment in scientific research and innovation.

Global growth in the manufacturing sector has steadily slowed even before the COVID-19 pandemic began. The pandemic is severely affecting manufacturing industries and causing disruptions to global value chains and product sourcing.

Innovation and technological progress are essential to discovering lasting solutions to economic and environmental challenges, such as increasing energy and resource efficiency. Globally, investment in research and development (R&D), as a percentage of GDP, increased from 1.5% in 2000 to 1.7% in 2015, and remained at almost the same level in 2017. However, in developing regions it was less than 1%

In terms of communications infrastructure, more than half of the world's population is connected and almost the entire global population lives in an area with mobile network coverage. It is estimated that, in 2019, 96.5% of the population had network coverage of at least 2G.

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Information and communication technologies have been at the forefront of the response to COVID-19. The crisis has accelerated the digitization of many businesses and services, including teleworking and video conferencing systems in and out of the workplace, as well as access to healthcare, education and essential goods and services.

As the pandemic reshapes the way we work, connect, go to school and buy essentials, closing the digital divide has never been more important for the 3.6 billion people who still don't have an Internet connection and can't access online education, employment or key health and sanitation advice. The Financing for Sustainable Development 2020 report provides policy options for harnessing the potential of digital technologies.

Once the acute phase of the COVID-19 crisis is over, governments will have to invest in infrastructure more than ever to accelerate economic recovery, create jobs, reduce poverty and stimulate productive investment.

The World Bank estimates that developing countries need to invest about 4.5% of GDP to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals while limiting global warming so that it does not exceed an additional 2 degrees Celsius.

The coronavirus pandemic highlighted the urgent need for a resilient infrastructure. The Asian Development Bank highlights that the region's critical infrastructure remains far from adequate in many countries, despite the rapid economic growth and development the region has experienced over the past decade. The Asia-Pacific and Economic Social Survey emphasizes that making infrastructure to be resilient to disasters and climate change will require an additional investment of US$434 billion per year. That sum may even have to be larger in some subregions, such as the small developing islands of the Pacific States.

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| Notable Data  

  • Basic infrastructure such as roads, information and communication technologies, sanitation, electricity and water remains scarce in many developing countries

  • 16% of the world's population does not have access to mobile broadband networks.

  • For many African countries, especially low-income countries, infrastructure constraints affect business productivity by around 40%.

  • The global share of manufacturing value-added in GDP increased from 15.2% in 2005 to 16.3% in 2017, driven by the rapid growth of industrialization in Asia.

  • The labor multiplier effect of industrialization has a positive impact on society. Every job in industry creates 2.2 jobs in other sectors.

  • Small and medium-sized companies engaged in industrial processing and manufacturing are the most critical in the early stages of industrialization and are often the biggest job creators. They represent over 90% of companies worldwide and represent between 50 and 60% of jobs.

  • The least developed countries have immense potential for industrialization in food and beverages (agribusiness) and textiles and clothing, with good prospects for generating sustainable jobs​​ and greater productivity.

  • Middle-income countries can benefit from entering the base metals and manufacturing industries, which offer a range of products that face rapidly growing international demand.

  • In developing countries, only 30% of agricultural production goes through industrial processes. In high-income countries, 98% are sued. This suggests that there are great opportunities for developing countries in agribusiness.

| Goal 9

9.1  Develop reliable, sustainable, resilient and quality infrastructure, including regional and cross-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a particular emphasis on accessible and equitable access for all

9.2  Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly increase the contribution of industry to employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double that contribution in less developed countries

9.3  Increase access for small industries and other businesses, especially in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit and their integration into value chains and markets

9.4  By 2030, modernize infrastructure and reconvert industries to be sustainable, using resources more efficiently and promoting the adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, ensuring that all countries take action in accordance with their respective capabilities

9.5  Increase scientific research and improve the technological capacity of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular in developing countries, inter alia, promoting innovation and significantly increasing, by 2030, the number of people working in research and development per million. inhabitants and in the public and private sectors spending on research and development

9th  Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through increased financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states

9.b  Support the development of national technology, research and innovation in developing countries, including ensuring a regulatory environment favorable to industrial diversification and adding value to commodities, among others.

9.c  Significantly increase access to information and communication technology and strive to provide universal and affordable Internet access in LDCs by 2020

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