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| Goal 10: reduce inequality within and between countries

Reducing inequalities and ensuring that no one is left behind is an integral part of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

Inequality within and between countries is a constant concern. Despite the existence of some positive signs for the reduction of inequality in some dimensions, such as the reduction of income inequality in some countries and the preferential trade situation that benefits low-income countries, inequality still persists .

COVID-19 has exacerbated existing inequalities, hitting poor and vulnerable communities harder. It exposed the economic inequalities and the fragile social safety nets that make communities vulnerable​​ suffer the consequences of the crisis. At the same time, social, political and economic inequalities magnified the effects of the pandemic.

On the economic front, the COVID-19 pandemic significantly increased global unemployment and reduced workers' incomes.

COVID-19 also jeopardizes the limited progress that has been made in gender equality and women's rights in recent decades. In virtually every area, from health to the economy, from security to social protection, the effects of COVID-19 have aggravated the situation of women and girls simply because of their gender.

Inequalities are also increasing for vulnerable populations in countries with worse health systems and in countries facing existing humanitarian crises. Refugees and migrants, as well as indigenous peoples, the elderly, people with disabilities and children are especially at risk of being excluded. In addition, hate speech directed at vulnerable groups​​ is on the rise.


COVID-19 is not only challenging healthcare systems around the world, but also testing our common humanity. The Secretary-General of the United Nations called for solidarity with the poorest and most vulnerable populations.​​ who urgently need help to respond to the worst economic and social crisis in generations. “Now is the time to fulfill our commitment not to leave anyone behind,” the Secretary General said.

To ensure that people around the world have access to essential services and social protection, the United Nations called for an extraordinary strengthening of international support and political commitment, including increased funding through the United Nations Fund. COVID-19 Response and Recovery, which aims to support low- and middle-income countries as well as vulnerable groups​​ who are disproportionately suffering from the socioeconomic effects of the pandemic.

This moment of crisis should also be used as an opportunity to invest in policies and institutions that can reverse the inequality situation. Seize a time when social policies and norms can be more malleable​​ than in normal times and taking radical steps to address the inequalities that this crisis has exposed could bring the world back to the Sustainable Development Goals.

You can find more information (in English) on the Goal of the month page.


| Notable Data  

  • In 2016, more than 64.4% of products exported by developing countries to world markets faced zero tariffs, a 20% increase over 2010.

  • Evidence from developing countries shows that children in the poorest 20% of the population are up to three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children in the richest quintiles.

  • Social protection has spread significantly around the world. However, people with disabilities are up to five times more likely to face catastrophic health care costs.

  • Despite the overall decline in maternal mortality, rural women in most developing countries are up to three times more likely to die in childbirth than women living in urban centers.

  • Up to 30% of income inequality is due to inequality within families themselves, including between women and men. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to live below 50% of the median income.

| Goal 10

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and maintain the income growth of the poorest 40% of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 By 2030, train and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all people, regardless of their age, gender, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic status or other condition

10.3 Ensure equal opportunities and reduce inequality of outcomes, including the elimination of discriminatory laws, policies and practices and the promotion of appropriate legislation, policies and measures in this regard

10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection, and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve regulation and supervision of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen enforcement of these regulations

10.6 Ensure greater representation and involvement of developing countries in decisions taken by international economic and financial institutions to increase the effectiveness, reliability, accountability and legitimacy of these institutions

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and the mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

10.a Apply the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to states with the greatest need, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing states and developing countries landlocked, according to its national plans and programs

10.c By 2030, reduce migrant remittances transaction costs to less than 3% and eliminate remittance corridors costing more than 5%

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